Published on Monday, May 23, 2016
In some areas, the window of opportunity for planting corn, and environmental conditions that followed, were not ideal for rapid germination and emergence. The cold soils and excessive rainfall we experienced shortly after planting has led to uneven emergence, delayed emergence, and an onset of seedling blights. We have also seen the use of rotary hoes in some areas with crusted soils.
Planting or Replanting Corn: When to Switch to an Earlier Maturity?
In general, planting dates during April 24 through April 27, and May 6 through May 8 have been the most troublesome for stand establishment in areas that received excessive rainfall. For many of these fields, tough decisions are now being made regarding if and where to replant. If you're contemplating replanting an entire field, you might be asking yourself “when should I switch to an earlier maturity hybrid?” The answer will depend on several factors such as on-farm drying and storage capacity, as well as your geography within the state.
In addition, the unknown factor of summer weather can have a major impact on maturity date. I believe most farmers have a tendency to switch to an earlier hybrid sooner than necessary. If switching prematurely, you could be sacrificing yield and revenue. When making recommendations, I use a decision support tool called “Useful to Usable.” This tool, developed by several organizations and Midwestern universities, puts current conditions into a 30-year historical perspective and offers trend projections through the end of the calendar year.
Figure 1 below is an example of this resource. Using the Corn Growing Degree Day Tool for Hoopeston, IL in Vermilion County, we can see that a 110-day RM corn hybrid planted on May 25 has a projected maturity date of October 7. Based on the 30-year weather data, this projection would be three days ahead of a first fall freeze on October 10.
Figure 1: Click Photo to Enlarge
With a goal of reaching black layer just ahead of the average first fall freeze (32°F), Figure 2 below indicates the recommended corn maturity to plant on May 25 based on location. Example towns have been included for your reference, so use the one of similar latitude to where you farm. You can see that the southern locations typically have more time than northern locations before needing to switch to an earlier maturity corn hybrid.
Beck's 11-year corn planting date study from our Central Illinois Practical Farm Research (PFR)® location near Downs, IL indicates that corn planted in the last half of May has about 88 percent of the yield potential compared to corn planted in the last half of April. This data can be found here. This data is consistent with other publications from multiple universities including University of Illinois and Purdue University.
Soybean Seeding Rate Recommendations for Delayed Planting or Replanting
Many of the delayed planting dates and wet weather conditions that plagued rapid corn germination and emergence has also caused challenges with soybeans in some areas. Figure 3 below indicates my recommended soybean seeding rates for different row spacings and planting dates. It is important to note that I do not recommend exceeding seeding rates of 160,000 seeds/A. in 30 in. rows, 180,000 seeds/A. in 15in. rows, or 200,000 seeds/A. in 7 to 8 in. drilled rows. If a soybean variety with a narrow canopy is planted, such as BECK 264L4, BECK 339R2, or BECK 365R2, I recommend seeding rates be increased 10,000 seeds/A. above the listed rates shown in Figure 3. Some no-till conditions may require slightly higher seeding rates as well.
Canopy closure when soybeans begin flowering in late June is a goal you need to shoot for to maximize light interception and yield potential. Data from Beck’s Central Illinois PFR 10-year soybean planting date study indicates yield potential for various planting date ranges. You can find the results of this study here.
Do not hesitate to contact myself, your local Beck’s dealer, or seed advisor if you have any questions regarding delayed planting or replant.
Practical Farm Research (PFR)® is a registered trademark of Beck's Superior Hybrids, Inc.
Author: Chad Kalaher
Categories: Agronomy, NE Illinois, NW Indiana
Tags: Beck's Blog, AgTalk, Chad Kalaher, Agronomy, Agronomy Update, agronomist, Beck's Agronomist, indiana agronomy, Illinois Agronomy, Replant, Delayed planting, seeding rate recommendations
Beck’s Hybrids team sales agronomist for 22 counties in NE ¼ of IL and 7 counties in NW IN. Raised on grain and livestock farm in southern IL. B.S. Agronomy 1995 – University of Illinois, M.S. Weed Science 1997 – North Carolina State University. Previous positions in seed industry as researc
Beck’s Hybrids team sales agronomist for 22 counties in NE ¼ of IL and 7 counties in NW IN. Raised on grain and livestock farm in southern IL. B.S. Agronomy 1995 – University of Illinois, M.S. Weed Science 1997 – North Carolina State University. Previous positions in seed industry as research agronomist, district, and regional sales manager.
Beck's Hybrids seed company provides high yield corn, soybeans, wheat and elite alfalfa. All seed products are protected by the Escalate™ yield enhancement system delivering higher yields, insect protection, improved stand, and seedling health. We give you access to every major supplier in the world, so you get the genetic diversity and trait protection you need from one company – Beck’s. A heritage built upon the hard work, faith and innovation of our family and family of employees.
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